Gamete intrafallopian transfer(GIFT)

Define GIFT? 

GIFT is a clinical procedure under assisted reproductive technology. In this process, eggs collected from a woman’s ovary have mixed with sperm obtained from a male partner in a clinical laboratory and immediately placed into the fallopian tube of the intended mother for fertilization is termed as gamete intra-fallopian transfer.

Gamete intrafallopian transfer(GIFT)

Is GIFT different from in-vitro-fertilization(IVF) and zygote intra-fallopian transfer(ZIFT)?

There is a significant difference of GIFT with IVF and ZIFT is fertilization of female and male gametes that have taken place into the intended mother’s fallopian tube rather artificially conducted in the laboratory set-up. Therefore, one utmost requirement is a healthy fallopian tube of the intended mother for successful pregnancy outcomes. 

What is the major difference between GIFT & IVF?

IVF is the most popular assisted reproductive technology is used.  However, some are preferred to perform GIFT. However, there is no evidence support GIFT is a more successful process than IVF.

  • In IVF, the fertilization process is conducted outside the body. In a highly specialized laboratory, collected healthy eggs and sperm have fertilized in the Petri-dish. Whereas, in GIFT, the mixed egg and sperm are immediately transferred into the fallopian tube of the intended mother for fertilization. Therefore, in GIFT, fertilization has taken place inside the body.
  • IVF can possible for females with completely absent or both fallopian tubes blocked or damaged. GIFT  is only possible in the presence of at least one healthy fallopian tube.
  • Embryo quality and viability have assessed in the IVF process, but it cannot be possible in GIFT.
  • GIFT has minimal ethical issues, as intended parents cannot select the embryo for implantation.

How is GIFT conducted?

GIFT  is conducted by the following steps:

  • An X-ray is conducted to the patient for determining the presence of at least one healthy fallopian tube. An additional laparoscopic intervention may clinician suggested ensuring the no scar tissue present outside the fallopian tube.
  • After getting all the positive results, the utilization of laparoscopy for the egg retrieval process from the ovaries is conducted.
  • Subsequently, sperm is also collected on the same egg retrieval.  
  • Freshly collected egg and sperm are then mixed in a catheter.
  • Immediately the mixture of egg and sperm is inserted into the fallopian tube through the catheter.   
  • Then, the doctor prescribed medication to the intended mother for the uterine lining build-up, which is essential for providing support to the fertilization process.   
  • In case any collected eggs remain, then it can be saved for future use through the cryopreservation process. Similarly, viable excess embryos can also be cryopreserved for future use through the IVF process.

 Application of GIFT

In the following conditions, GIFT may recommend by the doctors:

  • Couples have unexplained infertility.
  • Failure of IVF cycle.
  • Religious restriction or ethical issue does not support to perform IVF.
  • Women with at least a single healthy fallopian tube.
  • Male infertility due to poor quality or insufficient sperm count.

Advantages of GIFT:

In GIFT, hospitalization does not require. After completion of the process patient need to rest for eight hours in a recovery room and then she can go to her home.  

This process is suitable for couples who want to follow a more traditional process than artificial fertilization outside the body. Even some couples try this process before exploring expensive infertility treatment like IVF.  

 Disadvantages of GIFT

Neither fertilization nor quality of the formed embryo can be accessed in GIFT.

GIFT does not recommend a female with a damaged or complete blockage of fallopian tubes.    

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