The COVID 19 infection occurs because of SARS-CoV-2 invades the lungs and normal immune functioning disrupts. The lower respiratory tract tissue becomes damage and that causes pneumonia, cough, fever, etc. During coughing mucus excrete out through sputum. Some COVID-19 patients are experiencing excretion of blood during coughing (haemoptysis). Apart from respiratory damage, neurological illnesses, hepatocellular injury, myocardial dysfunction, gastrointestinal symptoms and acute kidney injury are some common findings among COVID -19 patients.
Both male and female COVID 19 survivors may face fertility issues because SARS-CoV-2 may impact reproductive functioning. Some researchers reported female infertility potentially increases during COVID-19 pandemic.
Different proposed pathophysiology involve in COVID 19 female survivors include increased level of multiple inflammatory mediators like cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumour necrosis factor-α. All these inflammatory mediators interfere with development of blastocyst or fetus in the uterus by triggering pro-coagulant state. This condition may cause preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, spontaneous abortion and even death. Researchers reported that SARS-CoV-2 cross the placental barrier of the pregnant women even in case of mild COVID-19 disease and causes fetal growth restriction and other pregnancy complications.
Research data analysis reported that COVID 19 binds with angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor. ACE2 is highly expressed in the ovaries and regulates follicular development, ovulation, corpus luteum angiogenesis and endometrial tissue growth. Therefore, interference of COVID-19 in the female reproductive system causes menstrual disorder, infertility and fetal distress. Diminished ovarian reserve affects fecundity by reducing egg quality also.
The multiplication rate of SARS-COV-2 is quite high. This leads to quick and severe spread of the virus in various internal organs. The global morbidity and mortality rates well describe the seriousness of COVOD-19 infection. It has assumed that male fertility may also hampers because of COVID-19 infection. ACE-2 receptor is abundantly present in male testis, as it present in human lungs, heart and kidney. The SARS-CoV-2 virus invades ACE2 receptor to enter in the body. Following are some of the patho-physiology observed by different medical researchers that indicate negative impact of male fertility because of COVID-19 infection interferes with Leydig and Sertoli cells.
- Testicular damage with inflammatory infiltration
- Discomfort in scrotal
- Semen parameters altered
- DNA fragmented spermatozoa increased
Finding of these fertility issues because of COVID-19 infection distinctly denoted male fertility issues. However in broader aspects finding of SARS−COV-2 in the semen or male reproductive tract is a controversial. Following are suggested way to limit this controversy:
- Assess whether SARS−COV-2 is present in semen
- Test the semen sample of the of acute, mild, severe, and recovered Covid-19 patients
- Examine the testis of Covid-19 patients
- Investigate the prostatic secretion of Covid-19 patients
However it is necessary to mention that COVID-19 vaccination does not cause infertility. Genetic material, mRNA is incorporated through most of the COVID-19 vaccination. Researchers reported Genetic material, mRNA is not stable and degraded quickly. It doesn’t replicate or reproduce. An OB-GYN expert from New York explained that the mRNA corona-virus vaccines teach human cells to produce a protein or a protein segment that can trigger an immune response. Activation of immune response produces antibodies and protects us from viral infection. The body automatically discarded the genetic material entered through vaccination after the immune system has been activated.
Ravi Sharma is a self-motivated, successful entrepreneur and has a solid experience in the fertility segment. and he is the director at ARTbaby Global (ARThealthcare). He is a pharmacy graduate with post-graduation in business administration and has 14 years of rich experience in the field of infertility segment. He loves to write about IVF, Surrogacy, and other ART (assisted reproductive technology) news, issues, and updates. He is a Pharmacy graduate (B. Pharm) and M.B.A (marketing).
His most recent success includes the successful launch of the medical tourism company, ARTbaby, which offers treatment options for infertility, egg donation, and surrogacy. He likes spending time with his family and writing about various aspects of IVF surrogacy and donating eggs.