Liquor and fertility

Excessive liquor consumption can lead to many diseases such as hypertension, heart disease, liver disease, abdominal bleeding, cancer (breast, mouth, throat, esophagus, liver, and colon), dementia, and other disorders.

Mental, anxiety, depression, and social and economic loss such as relationship damage and job loss are other consequences of heavy drinking.

Liquor use during pregnancy

Liquor consumption during e

The teratogenic effects of Liquor use during pregnancy are well documented.

Liquor rapidly penetrates the placenta into amniotic fluid and fetus.

The fetus is usually exposed to higher concentrations of Liquor than the mother due to the accumulation of liquor and its metabolites in the amniotic fluid and the somewhat reduced activity of the fetal metabolic enzyme.

Other established mechanisms of teratogenicity include decreased antioxidant capacity, increased levels of free radicals, and reactive oxygen species, which lead to increased apoptosis of fetal cranial / brain tissue.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum disorders caused by liquor exposure in utero include fetal Alcohol syndrome, partial fetal Alcohol syndrome, Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders, and Alcohol-related birth defects.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum disorders represent a continuum of diseases characterized by behavioral and cognitive deficits, craniofacial abnormalities, and growth retardation.

A recent prospective cohort of 992 women found a strong association between late first-trimester Liquor use and some characteristic facial anomalies, microcephaly, low body weight, childbirth, and height reduction.

However, liquor use in the second trimester was also associated with lower birth weight and height, while use in the third trimester only affected birth height.

Other studies have confirmed that growth retardation, neurological behavioral problems, and microcephaly may occur after liquor exposure in each trimester, but facial features are likely to be caused by exposure in the first trimester.

The effects of liquor on female reproductive organ

Heavy liquor consumption increases estradiol, testosterone, and LH levels, with more increases observed in women who have recently reported excessive drinking, even with no current menstrual dysfunction. 

Although heavy Liquor use may have little or no associated effect on the menstrual cycle, it appears to have a negative effect on infertility treatment outcomes.

Excessive liquor consumption can reduce women’s ovarian reserve and fertility.

Ovarian reserve, a measure of a woman’s reproductive potential as determined by her remaining oocytes, can be measured in several ways, including serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, such as the number of antral follicles.

There is also evidence that women with liquor ism may experience menopause at an earlier age than their non-liquor counterparts.

Drinking 1-6 liquor-containing beverages per week in women over the age of 30 may be associated with an increased incidence of infertility compared to women of the same age who drink at least one beverage per week.

Women who are already looking for infertility treatment should be encouraged to reduce their liquor consumption, as even moderate levels can negatively affect their ability to conceive.

The effects of liquor on male childbirth

Liquor consumption in men can also cause fertility problems.

Other studies of long-term and heavy liquor use have shown reduced gonadotropin release, testicular atrophy, and reduced testosterone and sperm production.

Liquor ism is also associated with impaired liver function, which can result in hormonal disorders due to the inability to metabolize estrogens.

Decreased sperm quality has also been frequently documented by many liquor consumers, even with rare azoospermia.

In addition, it is well documented that liquor abuse and binge drinking are associated with sexual dysfunction, including problems of arousal and desire, such as erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction, all of which can lead to sexual problems.

Pregnancy if men cannot have effective sexual intercourse.

Therefore, men who drink a lot should be instructed to limit their liquor consumption.

Effects of infertility treatment

Liquor consumption, even in moderation, can adversely affect the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART).

A prospective multicenter study of 221 pairs undergoing IVF or gamete intraphallopic transmission found a 13% reduction in oocyte retrieval and a 2.86-fold higher chance of failure.

More drinks per day compared to those who had few in the weeks before treatment.

The study found a reduction in birth rates in women who drank four or more drinks a week, compared with those who drank no more than four drinks a week.

In couples where the couple drank four or more liquor beverages per week, the live birth rate was even lower compared to couples where both partners drank less than four beverages per week.

These findings are generally considered an indicator of failure.

Because it can be seen that even moderate Liquor consumption can reduce IVF success by reducing oocyte yield and fertility, efforts should be made to reduce liquor consumption before starting IVF treatment. 

Reference:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5504800/ 

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