Common female fertility problems

Fifty percent of infertility problems arise due to female fertility issues.

The exact underlying female fertility problem is difficult to identify.

But usually, the problem diagnoses when difficulty arises to conceive.

The irregularity of the menstrual cycle, prolonged menstruation, or shortening of menstruation are some symptoms that may be associated with female fertility problems.

But the symptoms don’t need to be the same for every fertility problem.

happy pregnant women, Common female fertility problems.

The doctor’s recommendation for approaching fertility treatment depends upon your age.

If you are under 35 years, then you should try at least one year for conceiving before commencing any fertility treatment.

If your age is between 35 to 40 years, then you should discuss it with doctors after six months of trying, But if you cross 40 years, then you should first consult with a doctor before trying for conceiving.

The following are different female fertility issues:

Ovulation disorder

Ovulation disorder is common among 1 in 4 infertile couples.

Ovulation disorder can be associated with infrequent ovulation and complete cessation of ovulation.

This problem usually occurs due to endocrinal disorder arising in the reproductive system, the pituitary gland, or the hypothalamus.

Ovarian ailments are also responsible for ovulation disorders.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Hormonal imbalance is the major underlying cause of PCOS.

Obesity and insulin resistance are usually associated with PCOS.

Besides, facial hair growth and acne formation are other symptoms of PCOS.

 This disorder most frequently affects female infertility.

Hypothalamic dysfunction. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are two pituitary hormones responsible for stimulating ovulation every month.

There are certain factors like stress burden, and abrupt increase or decrease in BMI that alter these hormone productions and affect ovulation.

Irregular menstrual cycles or periods missed are common clinical symptoms of this disorder.

Primary ovarian insufficiency/Premature ovarian failure

This is usually a response to autoimmunity or premature egg loss in the ovary due to chemotherapy or genetic reason.

Estrogen production diminishes before 40 years of age and eggs are no longer produced in the ovary.


This is a condition in which excessive prolactin hormone is secreted due to overstimulation of the pituitary gland.

Hyperprolactinemia negatively affects estrogen hormone production and may cause infertility.

Apart from pituitary gland disorder, some medications can also reduce estrogen due to their side effects burden.

Fallopian tubes damage (tubal infertility)

Blockage or damaged fallopian tubes restrict the passage of sperm.

Therefore, sperm and eggs cannot meet for fertilization in the uterine wall.

Following are a few reasons associated with fallopian tube damage:  

  • Certain genital organ infections like gonorrhea, chlamydia, or other sexually transmitted infections cause pelvic inflammation and damage fallopian tubes and hamper uterine health.
  • Previous medical history of surgical interventions for ectopic pregnancy or other reproductive disorders increases the chance of fallopian tube damage.
  • Globally, pelvic tuberculosis is one of the common causes of fallopian tube damage.


Abnormal uterine tissue implantation and growth outside the uterus and development in other locations lead to endometriosis.

This additional tissue growth and surgical intervention for removal of this extra tissue may cause blockage of fallopian tubes and hampers fertilization by keeping away from an egg and sperm unit. 

The uterine lining also gets damaged in endometriosis and disrupts fertilized egg implantation.

Endometriosis also damages sperm or egg and indirectly affects fertility.

Uterine or cervical disorders

Certain uterine or cervical disorder hurts fertility by impeding implantation or increasing the miscarriage risk:

  • Uterine fibroids, which are benign tumors look seem like polyps that can cause fallopian tube blockage or interfere with implantation. Thus, this disorder affects fertility. Many female infertility cases are associated with fibroids or polyps formation.
  • Uterine inflammation or scarring in endometrial tissue hampers implantation.  
  • Congenital reproductive organ deformities like the abnormal shape of the uterus can restrict to become pregnancy.
  • Inherited malformation in the cervix or damage in the cervix can lead to narrowing of the cervix, which is clinically termed Cervical stenosis and can also negatively affect female fertility.
  • A low level of mucus secretion or poor quality mucous secreted from the cervix is unable to support effective sperm passage to reach the uterus for fertilization. Thus, female fertility hampers.  

Inexplicable infertility

Certain female infertility is unable to explainable.

In such cases, multiple, combined minor causes affect female fertility.

This condition is very frustrating for affected couples, as no specific solution is available for treating such conditions.

In some cases, such problems are self-corrected after a certain time.

It is always better to take medical advice during family planning.     

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