The negative effect of smoking on female and male fertility

It is very surprising when we checked the global female smokers numbers have reached approximately 250 million (WHO), whereas one-third of male smoke tobacco.

Are you also a female smoker? Then before you burn another cigarette, you follow this content.

Because cigarette smoking not only herm your heart, lung or a vascular problem, but also diminishes your auspicious natural gift, i.e. giving birth to a child! You may not be aware that smoking is injurious for your reproductive system and reduces almost half to conceive naturally.

smoking affects female and male fertility: Hopeless couple

Deleterious effects of smoking on the reproductive system

Smoking has multiple deleterious effects on the reproductive system, these are as follows:

•    Early onset of menopause for female

•    Abnormal semen parameter for men

•    Reduces fecundity swiftness and induces infertility

Apart from these, smoking also reduces the scope of successful ART (assisted reproductive technology) by increases the risk of miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy, along with reduces the scope of live birth per cycle.

A research study showed both maternal and paternal smoking history has a negative impact on IVF. 

Some clinical researchers also reported that cigarette smoking is one of the causes of IVF cycle failure by increasing the herm in overall IVF cycle including increases ovarian sensitivity decreases the number of oocytes, faulty fertilization, defective implantation, and premature placentation, delay to conceive.

Why cigarette smoking hampers reproduction?

Currently, smoking cigarettes are symbolised as modernity.

We usually used to the term nicotine, an alkaloid present in the cigarette.

But not only this chemo toxic substance present in cigarette, but almost 4000 different harmful chemicals including naphthalene, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), chrysene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, which are different types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

In addition, cigarette also contains different types of heavy metals, such as cadmium, lead, and cobalt; aromatic amines and nitrosamines.

These compounds have multiple negative impact properties and probably different targets on the male reproductive organ.

How cigarette smoking injurious for both female and male fertility?

Female infertility

Induce hormonal imbalance

Smoking increases testosterone level with an increased level of FSH and reducing of estradiol level.

This also negatively impact IVF cycle during ovarian stimulation.

Smoking causes endocrinal abnormality and impaired estradiol production and subsequently causes progesterone deficiency.

In the IVF cycle, the androgen/estrogen ratio enhancement by decreasing estrogenic concentration is remarkable in the androgenic follicular environment.

Toxic environment for embryo

Nicotine can reach to uterine fluid and endometrium, which causes toxic environment for embryo development.

In addition, BaP can also reach to the embryo and cause impair development by inducing multinucleated blastomeres.

Fallopian tubes dysfunction

Toxic substances present in cigarettes can reach the fallopian tube and causes tubal dysfunction.

Smoking can cause a reduction of the quality and quantity of ciliary cell, insufficient oocyte retrieval, impaired ciliary beat frequency, and excessive adhesion of cumulus-oocyte complex–epithelial cell.

This abnormal tubal function leads to higher rates of ectopic pregnancy in female smokers.

Increases oxidation stress

The creased oxidative stress due to cigarette smoking impairs folliculogenesis.

The smoke compounds retain in the ovary disturb normal cell division and resultant of this leads to cell necrosis.

Consequences lead to loss of follicle, anomalous follicle growth, and impairment of oocytes maturation and morphological development.

Chain smokers have a higher degree of risk

The number of smoking per day increases the degree and intensity of the risk.

The increase in toxic substances releases from a cigarette can retain in the follicular fluid and ovarian cells and subsequently create a noxious environment for follicle growth and oocyte maturation. 

Male infertility

Reduce Semen Parameter

Smoking has an association with sperm density reduction, decrease total sperm counts, and limit total motile sperm.

Sperm damage

DNA present in sperm is destroyed in exposure to the toxic substances present in cigarettes and other tobacco-containing products.

Stopping smoking improves the chance of conceiving

Good news is that stopping of smoking habit improves the chance of conceiving.

The impact of fertility treatment does not reduce with a past history of smoking.

But it is essential to stop smoking before commencing fertility treatment. 

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