Issues and controversies related to surrogacy : Updated 2022

Once Einstein has said, “Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind”.

The science of surrogacy can only be successful if the human and society accept it.

The best way of getting benefit from it is by using it ethically and without losing human values.

Emotional, social, and ethical issues raised in the use of surrogacy techniques is discussed here.

However, the truth is always to demonstrate a proper balance to obtain the best of technology.

Refer Also: Religious and Scientific view of Surrogacy

Emotional issues

Pregnant woman: Issues and controversies related to surrogacy

There is a possibility to develop an emotional attachment between the surrogate mother and the child to whom she gave birth.

This emotional attachment can cause mental distress to surrogate mothers, as they can feel there is no chance to meet the child who grew in her womb.

Moreover, there is the least chance of disclosing the surrogate mother’s identity to the born children at their older age because disclosure of surrogacy may create stress between the child and intended parents.

Ethical issues

Several ethical issues surfaced that relate to surrogacy.

Surrogacy is always a topic of argument between surrogacy supporters and protestors.

Surrogacy supporters believe that this medical process allows infertile couples to have their children.

However, surrogacy protestors always raise questions largely on altruistic surrogacy, and the compensation of surrogate mothers.

Surrogacy protestors believe commercial surrogacy encourages women to enter this industry not for helping others, but due to earning a lump sum amount of money.

Ethical issues related to the compensation amount are also a concern.

The interests of the surrogate mother and concern about the rights of the child are always the prime reason for arguments against surrogacy.

The following are some of the  common ethical questions related to surrogacy:

•    What will happen if the intended parent or surrogate mother changes their decision?

•    What happens if a miscarriage occurs in surrogacy?

•    What will happen if the child born with congenital disabilities?

•    In the above-mentioned cases who will take the responsibility for the child?

•    Is the surrogate mother get payment in the above mention cases?

•    Is there any fixed compensation amount for surrogacy?

The ethical concerns are not only restricted between intended parents and surrogate mothers, but it also concerns a child.

Surrogacy protestors want to prohibit surrogacy to avoid such undesirable circumstances.

Some religious opposition does also raises ethical issues.

For example, Vatican City has started rejecting surrogacy.

They trusted surrogacy cannot be morally acceptable as it diverges marriage and also loses the decorum of procreating a human person.        

Gay and lesbian surrogacy

Surrogacy becomes an attractive alternative method for same gender couples like the lesbian and gay population to have a child through surrogacy. 

Surrogacy provides the opportunity for one of the partners to become a potential parent having a biological relationship with the child.

The transgender community also opts for surrogacy to start their family.

But some courtiers restrict surrogacy only for heterogeneous married couples whereas, many countries legally allow same gender marriage.  

Social issues

Society that raises concerns about surrogacy has pointed out several social issues against it.

The primary concern is to look upon the surrogate as a resource but not a human as a usual thought process is like a caretaker of the baby till is handed over to the intended parents.

The surrogacy process looked as paying the caretaker for the creation of the child.

This narrative hurts the entire human values in a society.

Secondly, there is no backup plan in case the process goes wrong or does not yield as expected.

In such a cases baby’s  future is not defined properly.

Another issue directs the matter to socio-economic deliberations.

In the majority of cases surrogate mothers are from the economically weaker sections or are working.

However, the recipient’s parents are financially strong and well-to-do.

This raises the speculation that the mothers undergo the process to earn money in the form of compensation.

Many parents who used this surrogacy technique to get the child mostly hide the fact as they may believe that in future the society will look down on the child as not their own.

However, the diversity and advent towards the scientific outlook have narrowed down many such conservative approaches towards surrogacy.

Many nations have come up to accept surrogacy as a most successful alternative for a childless couple.

Refer Also: Controversial Ethical Issues and Legal Surrogacy

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