The usual concept of tourism brings an image of pleasure. The primary aim of the tourism industry is to provide occupational services to tourists. But apart from pleasure, tourists can also travel for business purposes or health-related reasons.
The concept of fertility tourism differs from the usual trips. Infertile couples travel cross-broader to obtain fertility treatment or also for importing the third parties necessary for their fertility treatment. Cross broader fertility tourism for assisted reproductive technology services demonstrated the globalization of reproduction and childbearing.
Globalization of fertility tourism allows the infertile couple, single parents and homosexual couples to access more efficient service within their budget, which may not be easily accessible in their home countries. The globalization of fertility tourism also offers a wider range of services with less stringent rules and regulations. Couples or persons may need to bypass the laws and regulations to obtain those services in their home countries. For example, certain countries have banned commercial surrogacy, whereas a country like Georgia legally accepted commercial surrogacy.
The increasing prevalence of infertility, modernization of life-style and well-established forms of assisted reproductive technologies revolutionize the trend of fertility treatment. Presently, international fertility tourism becomes popular as people who avail of this facility try to maintain privacy, along with avoiding to bear high costs and administrative delays in the delivery of infertility treatment in their home countries. Certain European countries like Slovenia, Hungary, and Romania have achieved an enormous growth of the infertility industry, which is considered as a manifestation of globalization of fertility tourism. Unavailability of adequate services in the home countries also triggers infertile couples to visit other countries. The demand for gamete donors has also increased and many young generations ready to donate their gametes in the host countries.
But the globalization of fertility tourism does not have a positive side only, but the dark part of this includes the enhancement of women’s exploitation. Feminists’ concern about the reproductive choice of women hampers as the payment method involvement interfere the decision making. Critics give stress to provide reproductive choices to the women, especially in the case of third party involvement in pregnancy and insist to avoid measuring this choice in terms of payment involvement.
However, national regulation of certain countries creates a barrier and restricts the globalization of fertility tourism. National policymakers need to pay attention to reproductive technologies in the expression of mutual trade agreements, technological development, regional amalgamations, the forces of global capital, and consumer desire to smoothen the globalization of fertility tourism.
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