Fifty percent of infertility problems arise due to female fertility issues. The exact underlying female fertility problem is difficult to identify. But usually, the problem diagnoses when difficulty arises to conceive. The irregularity of menstrual cycle, prolong menstruation or shortening of menstruation are some symptoms may be associated with female fertility problems. But it is not necessary the symptoms are the same for every fertility problem.
The doctor recommendation for approaching fertility treatment depends upon your age. If you are under 35 years, then you should try at least one year for conceiving before commencing any fertility treatment. If your age in between 35 to 40 years, then you should discuss with doctors after six months of tying, But if you cross 40 years, then you should first consult with a doctor before trying for conceiving. Following are different female fertility issues:
Ovulation disorder is common among 1 in 4 infertile couple. Ovulation disorder can be associated with infrequent ovulation and complete cessation of ovulation. This problem usually occurs due to endocrinal disorder arises in the reproductive system, or pituitary gland or hypothalamus. Ovarian ailments are also responsible for ovulation disorders.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Hormonal imbalance is the major underlying cause of PCOS. Obesity and insulin resistance are usually associated with PCOS. In addition, facial hair growth, acne formation are other symptoms of PCOS. This disorder is the most frequently affects female infertility.
Hypothalamic dysfunction. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are two pituitary hormones responsible for stimulating ovulation every month. There are certain factors like stress burden, abrupt increase or decrease BMI alter these hormones productions and affect ovulation. Irregular menstrual cycle or period missed are common clinical symptoms of this disorder.
Primary ovarian insufficiency/Premature ovarian failure. This is usually a response of autoimmunity or premature eggs loss in the ovary due to chemotherapy or genetic reason. Estrogen production diminishes before 40 years of age and eggs are no longer produced in the ovary.
Hyperprolactinemia: This is a condition in which excessive prolactin hormone secreted due to overstimulation of the pituitary gland. Hyperprolactinemia negatively affects estrogen hormone production and may cause infertility. Apart from pituitary gland disorder, some medication can also reduce estrogen due to their side effect burden.
Fallopian tubes damage (tubal infertility)
Blockage or damaged fallopian tubes restrict the passage of sperm. Therefore, sperm and eggs cannot meet for fertilization in the uterine wall. Following are a few reasons associated with fallopian tube damage:
- Certain genital organ infections like gonorrhea, chlamydia, or other sexually transmitted infections cause pelvic inflammation and damages fallopian tubes and hampers uterine health.
- Previous medical history of surgical interventions for ectopic pregnancy or other reproductive disorders increases the chance of fallopian tubes damage.
- Globally, pelvic tuberculosis is one of the common cause of fallopian tubes damage.
Abnormal uterine tissue implantation and growth outside the uterus and develops in other locations lead to endometriosis. This additional tissue growth and surgical intervention for removal of this extra tissue may cause blockage of fallopian tubes and hampers fertilization by keeping away from an egg and sperm unite.
The uterine lining also gets damaged in endometriosis and disrupt fertilized egg implantation. Endometriosis also damages sperm or egg and indirectly affect fertility.
Uterine or cervical disorders
Certain uterine or cervical disorder has a negative impact on fertility by impeding with implantation or increasing the miscarriage risk:
- Uterine fibroids, which is a benign tumors looks seems like polyps can cause fallopian tubes blockage or interfere with implantation. Thus, this disorder affects fertility. Many female infertility cases are associated with fibroids or polyps formation.
- Uterine inflammation or scarring in endometrial tissue hampers implantation.
- Congenital reproductive organ deformities like the abnormal shape of the uterus can restrict to become pregnant.
- Inherited malformation in the cervix or damage in the cervix can lead to narrowing of the cervix, which is clinically termed as Cervical stenosis can also negatively affect female fertility.
- Low level of mucus secretion or poor quality mucous secreted from cervix unable to support effective sperm passage to reach to the uterus for fertilization. Thus, female fertility hampers.
Certain female infertility is unable to explainable. In such cases, multiple, combine minor causes affect female fertility. This condition is very frustrating for affected couples, as no specific solution available for treating such condition. Some cases, such problems are self-corrected after a certain period of time. It is always better to take medical advice during family planning.